Fourier Extrapolator of 'Caterpillar' SSA of Price [Loxx]Fourier Extrapolator of 'Caterpillar' SSA of Price is a forecasting indicator that applies Singular Spectrum Analysis to input price and then injects that transformed value into the Quinn-Fernandes Fourier Transform algorithm to generate a price forecast. The indicator plots two curves: the green/red curve indicates modeled past values and the yellow/fuchsia dotted curve indicates the future extrapolated values.
What is the Fourier Transform Extrapolator of price?
Fourier Extrapolator of Price is a multi-harmonic (or multi-tone) trigonometric model of a price series xi, i=1..n, is given by:
xi = m + Sum( a*Cos(w*i) + b*Sin(w*i), h=1..H )
Where:
xi - past price at i-th bar, total n past prices;
m - bias;
a and b - scaling coefficients of harmonics;
w - frequency of a harmonic ;
h - harmonic number;
H - total number of fitted harmonics.
Fitting this model means finding m, a, b, and w that make the modeled values to be close to real values. Finding the harmonic frequencies w is the most difficult part of fitting a trigonometric model. In the case of a Fourier series, these frequencies are set at 2*pi*h/n. But, the Fourier series extrapolation means simply repeating the n past prices into the future.
Quinn-Fernandes algorithm find sthe harmonic frequencies. It fits harmonics of the trigonometric series one by one until the specified total number of harmonics H is reached. After fitting a new harmonic , the coded algorithm computes the residue between the updated model and the real values and fits a new harmonic to the residue.
see here: A Fast Efficient Technique for the Estimation of Frequency , B. G. Quinn and J. M. Fernandes, Biometrika, Vol. 78, No. 3 (Sep., 1991), pp . 489-497 (9 pages) Published By: Oxford University Press
Fourier Transform Extrapolator of Price inputs are as follows:
npast - number of past bars, to which trigonometric series is fitted;
nharm - total number of harmonics in model;
frqtol - tolerance of frequency calculations.
What is Singular Spectrum Analysis ( SSA )?
Singular spectrum analysis ( SSA ) is a technique of time series analysis and forecasting. It combines elements of classical time series analysis, multivariate statistics, multivariate geometry, dynamical systems and signal processing. SSA aims at decomposing the original series into a sum of a small number of interpretable components such as a slowly varying trend, oscillatory components and a ‘structureless’ noise. It is based on the singular value decomposition ( SVD ) of a specific matrix constructed upon the time series. Neither a parametric model nor stationarity-type conditions have to be assumed for the time series. This makes SSA a model-free method and hence enables SSA to have a very wide range of applicability.
For our purposes here, we are only concerned with the "Caterpillar" SSA . This methodology was developed in the former Soviet Union independently (the ‘iron curtain effect’) of the mainstream SSA . The main difference between the main-stream SSA and the "Caterpillar" SSA is not in the algorithmic details but rather in the assumptions and in the emphasis in the study of SSA properties. To apply the mainstream SSA , one often needs to assume some kind of stationarity of the time series and think in terms of the "signal plus noise" model (where the noise is often assumed to be ‘red’). In the "Caterpillar" SSA , the main methodological stress is on separability (of one component of the series from another one) and neither the assumption of stationarity nor the model in the form "signal plus noise" are required.
"Caterpillar" SSA
The basic "Caterpillar" SSA algorithm for analyzing one-dimensional time series consists of:
Transformation of the one-dimensional time series to the trajectory matrix by means of a delay procedure (this gives the name to the whole technique);
Singular Value Decomposition of the trajectory matrix;
Reconstruction of the original time series based on a number of selected eigenvectors.
This decomposition initializes forecasting procedures for both the original time series and its components. The method can be naturally extended to multidimensional time series and to image processing.
The method is a powerful and useful tool of time series analysis in meteorology, hydrology, geophysics, climatology and, according to our experience, in economics, biology, physics, medicine and other sciences; that is, where short and long, one-dimensional and multidimensional, stationary and non-stationary, almost deterministic and noisy time series are to be analyzed.
"Caterpillar" SSA inputs are as follows:
lag - How much lag to introduce into the SSA algorithm, the higher this number the slower the process and smoother the signal
ncomp - Number of Computations or cycles of of the SSA algorithm; the higher the slower
ssapernorm - SSA Period Normalization
numbars =- number of past bars, to which SSA is fitted
Included:
Bar coloring
Alerts
Signals
Loxx's Expanded Source Types
Related Fourier Transform Indicators
Real-Fast Fourier Transform of Price w/ Linear Regression
Fourier Extrapolator of Variety RSI w/ Bollinger Bands
Fourier Extrapolator of Price w/ Projection Forecast
Related Projection Forecast Indicators
Itakura-Saito Autoregressive Extrapolation of Price
Helme-Nikias Weighted Burg AR-SE Extra. of Price
Related SSA Indicators
End-pointed SSA of FDASMA
End-pointed SSA of Williams %R

# Quinn

Fourier Extrapolation of Variety Moving Averages [Loxx]Fourier Extrapolation of Variety Moving Averages is a Fourier Extrapolation (forecasting) indicator that has for inputs 38 different types of moving averages along with 33 different types of sources for those moving averages. This is a forecasting indicator of the selected moving average of the selected price of the underlying ticker. This indicator will repaint, so past signals are only as valid as the current bar. This indicator allows for up to 1500 bars between past bars and future projection bars. If the indicator won't load on your chart. check the error message for details on how to fix that, but you must ensure that past bars + futures bars is equal to or less than 1500.
Fourier Extrapolation using the Quinn-Fernandes algorithm is one of several (5-10) methods of signals forecasting that I'l be demonstrating in Pine Script.
What is Fourier Extrapolation?
This indicator uses a multi-harmonic (or multi-tone) trigonometric model of a price series xi, i=1..n, is given by:
xi = m + Sum( a*Cos(w*i) + b*Sin(w*i), h=1..H )
Where:
xi - past price at i-th bar, total n past prices;
m - bias;
a and b - scaling coefficients of harmonics;
w - frequency of a harmonic ;
h - harmonic number;
H - total number of fitted harmonics.
Fitting this model means finding m, a, b, and w that make the modeled values to be close to real values. Finding the harmonic frequencies w is the most difficult part of fitting a trigonometric model. In the case of a Fourier series, these frequencies are set at 2*pi*h/n. But, the Fourier series extrapolation means simply repeating the n past prices into the future.
This indicator uses the Quinn-Fernandes algorithm to find the harmonic frequencies. It fits harmonics of the trigonometric series one by one until the specified total number of harmonics H is reached. After fitting a new harmonic , the coded algorithm computes the residue between the updated model and the real values and fits a new harmonic to the residue.
see here: A Fast Efficient Technique for the Estimation of Frequency , B. G. Quinn and J. M. Fernandes, Biometrika, Vol. 78, No. 3 (Sep., 1991), pp . 489-497 (9 pages) Published By: Oxford University Press
The indicator has the following input parameters:
src - input source
npast - number of past bars, to which trigonometric series is fitted;
Nfut - number of predicted future bars;
nharm - total number of harmonics in model;
frqtol - tolerance of frequency calculations.
Included:
Loxx's Expanded Source Types
Loxx's Moving Averages
Other indicators using this same method
Fourier Extrapolator of Variety RSI w/ Bollinger Bands
Fourier Extrapolator of Price w/ Projection Forecast
Fourier Extrapolator of Price
Loxx's Moving Averages: Detailed explanation of moving averages inside this indicator
Loxx's Expanded Source Types: Detailed explanation of source types used in this indicator

Fourier Extrapolator of Price w/ Projection Forecast [Loxx]Due to popular demand, I'm pusblishing Fourier Extrapolator of Price w/ Projection Forecast.. As stated in it's twin indicator, this one is also multi-harmonic (or multi-tone) trigonometric model of a price series xi, i=1..n, is given by:
xi = m + Sum( a*Cos(w*i) + b*Sin(w*i), h=1..H )
Where:
xi - past price at i-th bar, total n past prices;
m - bias;
a and b - scaling coefficients of harmonics;
w - frequency of a harmonic ;
h - harmonic number;
H - total number of fitted harmonics.
Fitting this model means finding m, a, b, and w that make the modeled values to be close to real values. Finding the harmonic frequencies w is the most difficult part of fitting a trigonometric model. In the case of a Fourier series, these frequencies are set at 2*pi*h/n. But, the Fourier series extrapolation means simply repeating the n past prices into the future.
This indicator uses the Quinn-Fernandes algorithm to find the harmonic frequencies. It fits harmonics of the trigonometric series one by one until the specified total number of harmonics H is reached. After fitting a new harmonic , the coded algorithm computes the residue between the updated model and the real values and fits a new harmonic to the residue.
see here: A Fast Efficient Technique for the Estimation of Frequency , B. G. Quinn and J. M. Fernandes, Biometrika, Vol. 78, No. 3 (Sep., 1991), pp . 489-497 (9 pages) Published By: Oxford University Press
The indicator has the following input parameters:
src - input source
npast - number of past bars, to which trigonometric series is fitted;
Nfut - number of predicted future bars;
nharm - total number of harmonics in model;
frqtol - tolerance of frequency calculations.
The indicator plots two curves: the green/red curve indicates modeled past values and the yellow/fuchsia curve indicates the modeled future values.
The purpose of this indicator is to showcase the Fourier Extrapolator method to be used in future indicators.

Fourier Extrapolator of Price [Loxx]Fourier Extrapolator of Price is a multi-harmonic (or multi-tone) trigonometric model of a price series xi, i=1..n, is given by:
xi = m + Sum( a *Cos(w *i) + b *Sin(w *i), h=1..H )
Where:
xi - past price at i-th bar, total n past prices;
m - bias;
a and b - scaling coefficients of harmonics;
w - frequency of a harmonic;
h - harmonic number;
H - total number of fitted harmonics.
Fitting this model means finding m, a , b , and w that make the modeled values to be close to real values. Finding the harmonic frequencies w is the most difficult part of fitting a trigonometric model. In the case of a Fourier series, these frequencies are set at 2*pi*h/n. But, the Fourier series extrapolation means simply repeating the n past prices into the future.
This indicator uses the Quinn-Fernandes algorithm to find the harmonic frequencies. It fits harmonics of the trigonometric series one by one until the specified total number of harmonics H is reached. After fitting a new harmonic, the coded algorithm computes the residue between the updated model and the real values and fits a new harmonic to the residue.
see here: A Fast Efficient Technique for the Estimation of Frequency , B. G. Quinn and J. M. Fernandes, Biometrika, Vol. 78, No. 3 (Sep., 1991), pp. 489-497 (9 pages) Published By: Oxford University Press
The indicator has the following input parameters:
src - input source
npast - number of past bars, to which trigonometric series is fitted;
nharm - total number of harmonics in model;
frqtol - tolerance of frequency calculations.
The indicator plots the modeled past values
The purpose of this indicator is to showcase the Fourier Extrapolator method to be used in future indicators. While this method can also prediction future price movements, for our purpose here we will avoid doing.